Fine arts

The oldest examples of material culture in the territory of Azerbaijan date back to BC. It dates back to the 8th millennium. Ancient megalithic monuments, menhirs, dolmens, caves, defensive structures, mounds, metal tools, pottery, jewelry art were characteristic of the Azerbaijani settlement. Monumental rock paintings reflect the culture and aesthetic ideas of the people. Azykh cave (215-220 m) near the city of Fizuli proves that Azerbaijan is one of the oldest human settlements in the world.

Azıx mağarası
Azykh cave
Among the oldest examples of fine art Gobustan rock paintings from the VIII-V centuries, paintings of the beginning of the Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC) in the Ayichingili and Perichingil mountains around Lake Zalkha in the Kalbajar region, rock paintings in the Gamigaya mountains north of Orbdubad are of exceptional importance. The paintings engraved on the rocks of Gobustan “Boyukdash”, “Kichikdash”, “Cingirdagh”, “Shongardagh” and others, depictions related to the lifestyle, life and work of the ancient people who lived there are of special interest. Various plots, scenes, human and animal images related to hunting, cattle breeding, agriculture and other spheres of life are engraved here in a dynamic way. Gobustan rock paintings – pictograms cover a centuries-old, long historical period from the primitive community structure to the stage of feudalism.
Gəmiqaya təsvirləri
Descriptions of Gamigaya

Among the ancient examples of fine arts are pottery, decorative patterns, paintings, reliefs (relief drawings), sculptures that adorn stone and metal products. Among them are a spherical bowl (Shahtakhti village of Nakhchivan AR), a two-headed deer figure (Dolanlar village of Khojavend region), a bronze bowl with 5 fantastic animal drawings (Gadabay), a crescent-shaped gold collar (Ziviya), a golden glass (Hasanlu near Lake Urmia). hill), Mil, ceramic vessels found in the Karabakh plains are distinguished by their elegance and artistic perfection (VIII-VII centuries BC). Samples of artistic glass products of different types and shapes found in Mingachevir and Shamakhi – decorative vessels, cups, women’s ornaments – show that glass production also exists in Azerbaijan.

Patterns of sculpture and sculpture are widespread in the art of the Albanian (Caucasian) period. One of the most perfect examples of Albanian (Caucasian) sculpture is the relief of two peacocks standing on the left and right sides of the sacred tree of life on the surface of the stone capital of the Mingachevir temple (5-6 centuries).

Mingəçevir Albaniya məbədi
Mingachevir Albanian temple

Plastic forms are also often found in the design of artistic metal products (torevtika). Mingachevir, Torpaqqala and others. Pictures of deer, lion, peacock and buta are depicted on silver glass and bronze water vessels found in the area. Scenes of human and animal images, household, hunting, and religious rites predominate among the circular and embossed sculptures of this period (bronze and stone). Beginning in the 7th century, architectural complexes, palaces, castles, mosques and tombs were built in the ancient historical cities of Azerbaijan – Gabala, Nakhchivan, Shamakhi, Baku, Barda, Ganja, Beylagan, Tabriz, Maragha and Ardabil – in connection with the spread of Islam. Calligraphy – inscriptions, ornaments, tiles and embossing elements were widely used in the decorative design of these buildings. In the buildings belonging to the Shirvan-Absheron School of Architecture, stone carvings, geometric and floral patterns, and in the decorative decorations of the buildings representing the Nakhchivan School of Architecture, ornamental motifs consisting of glazed brick and tile ornaments take the main place.

Bayıl daşları
Bayil stones

Among the most famous examples of sculpture, the inscriptions and reliefs on the architectural monument of the Shirvanshahs “Bayil Castle” or “Sabail”, built in the XIII century in the port of Baku, played a decisive role in the decorative design of the building. Along with the inscriptions on the “Bayil stones”, the images of people and animals (tiger, camel, horse, ox, bird) are deeply engraved. “Bayil stones”, which have the character of a frieze, once formed a decorative element of a magnificent architectural monument located on land.

Qobustan qaya rəsmləri
Gobustan rock paintings

In the Middle Ages, Azerbaijani fine arts were combined with decorative applied art, and ceramic samples found in Ganja, Beylagan and other cities depicted a sharp-clawed bird or a knight shooting an arrow with an arrow, along with floral and geometric ornaments. During this period, the Azerbaijani Renaissance culture was closely connected with the work of Nizami Ganjavi, who in his poems created images of architects, sculptors, painters and artists (Farhad, Shapur, Simnar).